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I created this blog without engineering. It's only limited to my knowledge. This blog contains articles which include history, astronomy, geology, and others.

Astronomers Discover Planet's Biggest Solar System

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Astronomers Discover Planet's Biggest Solar System

Astronomers discover new planet in the solar system-sized four times the weight of Jupiter. The largest planet's orbit is a thousand times farther from the Sun to the Earth.
Data that could prove the existence of Tyche, the gas giants outside Oort cloud, will be released later this year based on information gathered NASA.

Professor Daniel Whitmire of the University of Louisiana, Lafayette, believe the planet is composed of hydrogen and helium.

Just like Jupiter, has a ring of clouds Tyche. Because of their large size, most likely studied clearly takes two years.

Tyche is expected too, just like Pluto, has a temperature of minus 73 degrees Celsius. Initially, the planet is mistaken for a comet.

If confirmed as the new planet, then this object will be the ninth planet by the International Astronomical Union approval.

Who is Behind the Dead Sea Scrolls Mystery disappearance

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Who is Behind the Dead Sea Scrolls Mystery disappearance

The discovery of the hand writings of ancient Hebrew and Aramaic at Qumran province, post-World War II has sparked enthusiasm for the People of the History of the Bible to obtain information about these texts.
They expect to provide answers to the mysteries of an important period in human history.

That certainly is reasonable considering that the most ancient Hebrew manuscripts that exist today from the books of the Old Testament comes from the 10th century AD
Apart from that the scrolls were storing large differences if faced with septuagintal Greek manuscripts that successfully translated in Alexandria in the 13th century BC.

Which of the two manuscripts of the most valid in the event of a difference? Which of the two most reliable?

Not only limited to the Church-the Church Yitzrael, even the Christian Churches of Greece, acknowledge the Old Testament as part of their Scriptures.

While the Christians until the 10th century AD, the script relies on the Septuagint (the Greek text, important life) and after that they switch (except the Eastern Greek Church) to the Hebrew text at the beginning of the same century.

As the sources come down to us about al-Masih, all from the writings which are arranged in a half-century since the time specified as the death of Jesus.

And no one
any manuscript (albeit slightly) from the sources of contemporary history that mentions a certain period is said that Jesus never lived at that time.

On the contrary, the Book of the New Testament itself, for reference only neighbor of Jesus' life gives us information contradictory with regard to the life and death of Jesus.

Gospel of Matthew says that Jesus was born during the reign of Emperor Herodus, who died in year 4 BC.

While the Gospel of Luke set the birth of the Messiah on the population census by the Roman period, namely in the six-born al-Masih.

Differences also emerged with respect to the berakhirya life of the Messiah on earth. Based on descriptions obtained from the Gospels, there is a setting in year 30, year-33 and some are set in the 36th.

While the earlier belief that the Gospel writers confirm it is the disciples and companions who lived during the Messiah, and they become living witnesses of the declaration that they write.

However, this present moment it became clear that none of the gospel writers who never met Jesus.

The authors were without exception rely on narrations they had heard from others or from their interpretations of ancient writings.

Based on this fact, the discovery of ancient writings that precede or during the time of Jesus' life in the area that only a few miles from the city of Jerusalem, which was mentioned as the town where the death of the Messiah, has revived hopes of finding the source- source of knowledge to uncover the veil of mystery and the nature of the problem in the history of Christian religious institutions and their connection with Jewish congregations exist in those days.

Enthusiasm becomes larger since the publication of the earlier parts of manuscripts in the sixties.

So it is clear that the writings of the hand is closely related to Judeo-Christian group known as The Esenes, who has a wise teacher by nature and the characters are no different from al-Masih.

But unfortunately that enthusiasm that emerged among the scientists of history and its holy book the lay reader would cause anxiety and worry from religious authorities and institutions of Jewish and Christian communities.

The reason for anxiety is not related to the fear that the information recovered will strengthen the faith of Muslims, because true that these writings are ancient religious writings.

But anxiety was more directed to fears of diversion and changes not only with regard to the nature of history, but also concerning interpretation of religious texts the following meanings.

Based on such reasons, then the government ever since Israel occupied the Old city of Jerusalem after the War of June 1967, masuskrip publishing efforts of the Dead Sea was practically stopped. While there still remains more than half of which have not been published.

Even more than that, the Israeli government seeks to silence voices that come from all directions (the most outspoken scientists instead of Israel itself).

To circumvent the constant insistence that the Israeli government planned a symbolic action. Authorities in Israel Archaeological Department to send the pictures photography been claimed as representing the entire manuscript in the Rockefeller Museum in Jerusalem, the University of Oxford in England and to a university in the United States.

Furthermore, the Israeli government to pretend as if furious and staged a protest when the university is meant to translate and publish the pictures photography manuscript without official permission from the Israeli government.

This symbolic drama of the Israeli government, apparently intended to give the impression as if all texts have been translated and published manuscripts, and thus there would be no more excuses of any party to urge the Israeli government to show all the ancient manuscripts in his hand.

Can be ascertained that there still exist a number of manuscript pieces still unpublished, and by certain parties being deliberately kept secret, for thus he will be forgotten again by history.

However, parts of which have been published before, enough to explain to us what true mystery by certain parties deliberately covered up. This is what shall we try to reveal it on-topic discussion follows.

The manuscript is the Dead Sea is a collection of ancient handwritten recovered between the years 1947 - 1956 in the caves that lie hidden in the mountains west of the Dead Sea, among others, the area of ​​Qumran, Muraba'at, Khirbat, Mird, Ein Pause and Masada.

The findings, particularly from the Qumran area or Umran, Jordan the West Bank territory which is only a few kilometers south of Jericho (Areeha), since the half-century ago, has brought profound impact on the mindset researchers throughout the Jewish and Christian world.

Further discoveries were spectacular, definitely, has resulted in many changes in the structure of the trust that had been believed to be in Palestine.

However, we are still in the initial step that can not be expected to get perfect results, unless the entire manuscript is successfully published and understood its meaning by the researchers.

When World War II almost died down, precisely in February 1947, discovered the first cave near the Dead Sea.

When was Palestine under British guardianship and Jerusalem is still in the grip of the Palestinian people.

Initially, Muhammad Ad-DIB, a young shepherd loses a sheep property. He came from Ta'amirah tribe who inhabit the region stretching from Jerusalem to the banks of the Dead Sea. In an effort to find a lost sheep, the shepherd boy had climbed onto a rock.

From there he saw a narrow slit of a cliff facing mountain slopes. Picked up a stone, he threw the stone into the cave and suddenly sounded impact threw stones with objects that seemed made of pottery.

The little Shepherd and then climbed the mountain slope and peered over the top. In the dim atmosphere, Muhammad witnessed a number of pottery furniture neatly arranged on the floor of the cave.

The next morning, Muhammad returned to the cave followed by a few of my friends. And indeed, inside the cave they found a set of furniture from pottery and seven rolls of handwriting.

In a short time, handwritten manuscript that has been exhibited for sale by antique dealer in Jerusalem, called Kando.

He bought goods from a resident Ta'amirah. Athanasius Samuel, head of the Catholic Convent of Saint Mark in Switzerland which at that time was in Jerusalem to buy 4 pieces of manuscripts, while the other 3 pieces were purchased by Professor Eliezer Sukenik of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

When the Arab War - Israel raging, following the proclamation of the founding of the State of Israel on May 15, 1948, Athanasius worried about the fate of the ancient manuscripts he had bought.

He intends to send the four manuscript to the United States for sale there. But finally the manuscripts were purchased by Yigael Yadin (Sukenik Professor children) at a quarter million U.S. dollars on behalf of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

Thus, the findings of the first seven scripts that are in the ownership of Hebrew University in Israel.

When reached the Arab-Israeli peace agreement on November 7, 1949, the area of ​​the northern third of Qumran and the Dead Sea region into the territory of the Kingdom of Jordan Hashemit, and thus the authorities in Jordan can freely launch a series of archaeological expeditions in order to track the presence of ancient manuscripts of the remaining .

While on the other citizens of the existence of secret Ta'amirah mysterious caves, but in Jordan the authorities finally managed to find it on the end of January 1949.

Following the discovery of the location of the caves of Qumran, Jordan authorities immediately launched a search expedition in these caves.

Under the supervision G.L. Harding, a British scientist who served as Director of the Department of Archaeology Jordan with Rev. Roland de Vaux director of the French Dominican I'Ecole Biblique in East Jerusalem, the expedition managed to find hundreds of small pieces in a cave below the ancient objects of pottery , fabrics and objects from wood.

Antiques are certainly very helpful attempt to determine the historical writings of ancient times that hand.

But unfortunately, this expedition did not proceed to include the area of ​​Khirbat (Plain below the location of the cave), except in November 1951, which found the ruins of ancient settlements are inhabited by the followers of the sect Esenes, in it was also found roman antiquities .

Include metal coins, which from the time of manufacture indicate that the caves are inhabited by specific people to blazing Jewish rebellion movement against the Romans between the years 66-70 AD, which ended with the scorched earth of Jerusalem and the expulsion of Jews from the city these and other areas around Jerusalem.

Because of greed to obtain material advantages, the inhabitants Ta'amirah explore almost the entire edge of the Dead Sea region in order to find other manuscripts expected to remain hidden in the caves of the mountainous region.

In November 1952, a Bedouin citizens Ta'amirah managed to find another cave stored in it a large number of scrolls and manuscripts that have been weathered into small pieces. He later sold it to the authorities in Jordan.

How to searches conducted by residents Ta'amirah was later imitated by the government of Jordan to conduct exploration in the caves of the Dead Sea in order to find manuscripts that are still remaining.

Peak, in 1965, found a set of caves which consists of twelve pieces, also in the area of ​​Qumran. New caves have been found further that were numbered in order of discovery.

Residents Ta'amirah found cave number 1, 4, and 6, while the seven caves discovered by the other authorities Jordan.

De Pater Voux, subsequently appointed as Responsible Jordan Archaeological Expedition in an effort to discover the ancient manuscripts at Qumran, and concurrent Responsible translation project and manuscript preparation.

By de Foux, manuscript fragments recovered in the Cave Number-1 submitted to Dominique Partolemi and Millick, both partners work at the French Dominican Foux de I'Ecole Biblique. Publishing script translation done by Oxford University in 1955.

Following thereafter, in 1961, the translation of manuscripts found in the cave Muraba'at region, south of Qumran, by Josef T. Belongs, has been published as well.

The fourth part of the manuscript Muraba'at containing scriptures from Psalms findings in cave number 11 was published in 1965.

While the fifth section which is the pieces that came from cave number 4 published in 1968.

In the next development, also discovered ancient manuscripts in the caves of Qumran others outside the region, among others in the region Mird, southwest of Qumran, Muraba'at (southeast of Qumran) and Masada, an ancient Jewish fortress at the southern Dead Sea controlled by the Israeli government.

In an effort to discover the ancient manuscripts, the residents of Qumran was not satisfied with the search at Qumran, they even have explored almost all the mountainous region that stretches along the coast of the Dead Sea region.

0ktober In 1951, once again a resident Bedouin Ta'amirah found a number of manuscripts in Hebrew and Greek in a cave in Muraba'at oasis region, about 15 km south of Qumran cave first, then he sold the manuscript to its findings Jordan authorities.

At the same time, a number of other Ta'amirah find some Christian writings in the area Mird, near Qumran, on which are written in Syriac language.

An expedition team consisting of Israeli archaeologists led by Yigael Yadin, the codex also do a search between the years 1963 - 1965, particularly in the relics of the scars in the fortress of Masada, in Israel's territory, the north east of Arikha (Al-Khalil) , and managed to find several pieces of ancient manuscripts.

But the spotlight here is our ancient writings from Qumran, which is believed to be relics of the people Esenes sect, not the writings of Judaism and Christianity are found outside Qumran.

Arab War - Israel in 1967 led to the collapse of the West Bank into the clutches of the Israeli occupation government, as well as the museums of Jerusalem, where the shelf of ancient manuscripts.

No one apart from mastery of Israeli authorities in addition to a manuscript of copper, because at that time, the manuscript was in Amman, Jordan. And since then, all activity ceased publication codex practical.

1. At the time of the Greek language became the common language used in the Mediterranean region, the old Testament Hebrew-Bible-less
comprehensive for most people.

For this reason, the Yahudi scholar translating the Old Testament from a variety of Hebrew texts of the fragments also speak Aramaic, into Latin, this is called the "Septuagint", see Encyclopaedia Britannica 2004 Deluxe Edition CD-Room (translator).

Adapted from the Mystery of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Translated from the Original Title

Makhtutat al Bahri al Mayit

Work: Ahmad Osman
Copyright Maktabatu as Syuruq, Cairo

Amazing, Here are 10 Shrine of the Most Famous Ancient Greek

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Amazing, Here are 10 Shrine of the Most Famous Ancient Greek

10. Temple of Olympian Zeus

Although only a few columns, remains of Zeus at Olympia Temple of Athena does not take much imagination to realize that this is one giant temple.

Its construction began in the 6th century BC during the reign of the tyrant of Athens. But the biggest temple in the world in ancient times, but not finished until the reign of Roman Emperor Hadrian in the 2nd century BC.

9. Temple of Poseidon, Sounion

Located at the southern tip of the peninsula of Attica i
n Greece, the Temple of Poseidon at Sounion, 3 sides surrounded by sea. The temple was built in approx. 440 BC, on the ruins of the temple which comes from the archaic period.

Only a few remaining columns and the Temple of Poseidon still stand, but if intact, this temple will resemble the Temple of Hephaestus at the Acropolis, this may be because it is designed by the same architect.

8. Temple of Zeus, Cyrene

Cyrene is the most important of the five Greek colony in Libya until now. The temple was destroyed during the Jewish revolt in 115, and again good 5 years later because it was built again by the Romans on the orders of Emperor Hadrian.

In the year 365, the quake caused the temple collapsed once again and not rebuilt until the modern era by the British and Italian archaeologists. The temple is larger than the Parthenon, a reflection of the richness and importance of Cyrene in the ancient Greek world.

7. Erechtheum

The Erechtheum is an ancient Greek temple on the north side of the Ionic style of the Acropolis of Athens. The temple was built between 421 and 407 BC. Its name comes Erichthonius, the Greek hero. The temple is perhaps most famous for its typical terrace, supported by six female figures known as Caryatids.

6. Temple of Apollo Epicurius

Located in the remote mountain slopes in the Peloponnese, the Temple of Apollo in Bassae Epicurius is a well-preserved Greek temples and unusual. Built somewhere between 450 and 400 BC. The temple is aligned north-south, unlike most Greek temples are aligned east-west.

5. Doric Temple of Segesta

Located in the northwestern part of Sicily, Segesta is one of the major cities of the tribe Elymian, one of three indigenous peoples of Sicily. Doric Temple which is located just outside the ancient site is well maintained.

Built in the late fifth century BC and has 6 x 14 columns and temples are also apparently lacking a roof over the main room.

4. Paestum

Paestum is an ancient Greco-Roman city in southern Italy, not far from the beach. In this city there are three Greek temples are maintained.

Is the oldest temple in Paestum Temple of Hera, built around 550 BC by Greek colonists. Nearby temple was built around a century later and is also dedicated to Hera, the goddess of marriage and childbirth. Farther away stood the Temple of Athena was built around 500 BC.

3. Temple of Hephaestus

Located about 500 meters north-west of the famous Acropolis, Temple of Hephaestus is the Greek temple that is preserved best in the world.

The temple was built in the 5th century BC in a district that contains a lot of casting and metal shops. Therefore dedicated to Hephaestos, the god of metal working. Temple of Hephaestus designed by Ictinus, one architect who also worked on the Parthenon.

2. Valley of the Temples

Situated on a ridge outside the town of Agrigento, the remainder of the 7 Greek temple is called the Valley of Temples. Temple of Concordia, was built in the 5th century BC, is one of the best and largest Doric style temple that still stands.

Other temples include the Temple of Juno, which is used for wedding celebrations, and the Temple of Heracles, the oldest temple in a location that currently only consists of 8 columns.

1. Parthenon, Acropolis

Parthenon on the Acropolis is one of the most famous buildings in the world, and a visit to Athens is not complete without visiting this temple.

Parthenon Construction began in 447 BC, replacing an older temple destroyed by the Persians, and was completed in 432 BC.

The purpose of the Parthenon was to house a large statue of Athena parthenos made of ivory, silver and gold. First in the 5th century, the statue was looted by one of the Roman Emperor, and taken to Constantinople, where he later destroyed.

Big Splash, Tibetan Mastiff Dog Hairy bushy This World's Most Expensive

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Big Splash, Tibetan Mastiff Dog Hairy bushy This World's Most Expensive

Many people claim money can not buy love. However, with 945 thousand pounds (Rp13, 2 billion), you can buy a 'friend' most expensive in the world.

Dogs are often considered as a faithful friend of humans. Tibetan Mastiff dog red became the most expensive dog in the world after the sale with 945 thousand pounds. The dog was named Big Splash purchased coal millionaire businessman from northern China who are not to be named.

Luckily, the new owners do not mind spending big to eating Big Spalsh who weighs 286 pounds (the equivalent of rugby players), including chicken, beef, sea cucumber and abalone.

"We've spent a lot of money to raise these dogs. We also have to pay the salary of some staff, "said the previous owner, Lu Liang.

Big Splash is the perfect species to breed again because mature age, 11 months. High price for these dogs deserve considering the Tibetan Mastiff is considered as a symbol of prosperity in China.

Just like jewelry and luxury cars for most upper-class society. The dog was considered to be noble and able to bless the owner with perfect health and safety.

Dogs believed to have the soul of Tibet monks and nuns who are not quite capable of being reincarnated as a human being or back to Shambhala, heavenly nature.

Dogs are also very intelligent and sensitive to the danger, so that is usually used to keep livestock and children.

This is the eighth biggest Animals Throughout History of Life on Earth

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This is the eighth biggest Animals Throughout History of Life on Earth

1. Argentinosaurus: Greatest of All Time in Mainland

It is the largest land animals of all time. It has a length of about 45 meters and weighing about 95 tons or 30 times the weight of the African elephant.

These creatures live in the Cretaseous or 100 million years ago. They live in groups and often fall prey to the giant predators like Giganotosaurus.

2. Ornithocheirus: Biggest ever fly

It is the largest creature ever to fly. The wings of this creature from end to end along the 46 feet or 18 meters. Even in the wings is enough to accommodate 2 car family. Ornithocheirus eating fish.

Creature of this size can fly because its body is made hollow so it is easy to fly. Despite this huge creature, this creature is often a meal or Sarchosucus Dei

3. Giganotosaurus: Predator Army Greatest of All Time

Giganotosaurus was crowned as the largest land predator ever. Gigan's body structure is similar to t-rex.

But t-rex is shorter and his body 'only' about 9 meters,
while Gigan adults can reach 13 meters. This giant dropped the prey live in groups in a bleak magnitude Argentinosaurus adult.

4. Liopleurodon: All Time Greatest Sea Predators

Liopleurodon mentioned are the largest marine predators of all time. These creatures have teeth along the 30cm, and the skull along the 5 meter.

The maximum length of the body of this monster is 25 meters. Food is of course a monster whale's body and many many other fleshy creatures. Life 140 million years ago.

5. Megalodon

Megalodon is a kind of shark that lived in ancien
t times. These sharks were the ancestors of sharks and thus has an enormous size. Megalodon small measuring about 6 meters in length.

While adult Megalodon measuring about 18 meters o
r by boat. Food is usually a whale shark. The way they eat is also similar to modern sharks.

6. Sarcoshucus:
Predator Amphibious Greatest of All Time

Sarcosuchus, close relatives of the crocodile is the largest crocodile species in the crocodile family. The length of this giant monster's body about 50 feet with a weight of about 8-10 tons, or nearly equal to the size of a bus.

Sarcosuchus sometimes can take a giant dinosaur who likes to drink the water in the river where sarcosuchus live.

7. Deinosuchus

This creature is the ancestor of the crocodile family. If the length sarcosuchus mouth, not in deinosuchus. Deinosuchus allegedly have teeth as long as 10 cm, and her mouth has a bite strength of 10,000 pounds or 2 times as strong as a lion bite.

This creature has a length of 45 feet and weighing about
12 tons. Although a large body size, these creatures also have a high jump. Deinosuchus could take an adult size Pterodactyl.

8. Blue Whale: World's Largest Animals (currently)

Blue Whale or so-called blue whale, can be regarded as the largest creature in the world today. With about 100 feet long and weighing more than 50 tons of blue whales, of course, crowned as the largest creature in the world.

But maybe there's something odd with this creature, although the size is classified as very large, these whales eat only plankton and small organisms in water.