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I created this blog without engineering. It's only limited to my knowledge. This blog contains articles which include history, astronomy, geology, and others.

Genetically Engineered Mice Results It Can Sing Like Birds

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Genetically Engineered Mice Results It Can Sing Like Birds

A group of scientists at Osaka University to modify genes in mice are susceptible to mutations in their project called Evolved Mouse Project. The scientists expect the birth of mice with different physical forms. The result?

"Mutation is the power to encourage evolution. We have conducted genetic crosses in mice to see what would happen," said lead researcher that, Uchimura Arikuni as quoted from the pages of The Telegraph.

The team then examined every mice born from these crosses. "One day, we discovered that mice sing like a bird," Arukuni. He admitted that he was shocked by the discovery because he was expecting a mouse that has a different physical.

He noted that the 'mouse singing' was born by chance but the nature will be passed on to future generations.

Laboratory who commandeered Takeshi Yagi, professor at the university, located in western Japan now has more than 100 'mice sing' for further research.

The research team is hoping to find guidance on how humans evolved language, such as research in various countries who studied the finches to help them understand the origins of human language.

Here's the video:

"Studies on rats better because rats are mammals and humans closer to the views of the structure of the brain and other biological aspects," said Arikuni.

"We see how the rats released a new sound will affect the normal mice in the same group, in other words if it has a social connotation," he said, adding that mice squeak is common, especially under stress.

Only Less Than 15 Minutes, Brain Already Recordable New Words

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Only Less Than 15 Minutes, Brain Already Recordable New Words

The brain will learn a new word in less than 15 minutes. Simply listen to these word as much as 160 times. According to scientists at the University of Cambridge, the brain will create new neural network to remember the word.

The findings of these scientists explain that the time it takes the brain to learn the words turned out to be much faster than expected.

Research done by placing electrodes on the head of 16 healthy volunteers. Their brain activity monitored during the test consisted of 2 stages.

In the first stage, the volunteers played on the words that are familiar. The second stage, they played on a foreign word that is called repeatedly.

At the beginning of the second phase, brain activity showed that the brain tries to recognize the word. But, after repeated 160 times in 14 minutes, brain activity can not be distinguished from brain activity in the first stage. "Virtually no difference," said Dr. Yury Shtyrov involved in research.

"To listen to alone is helpful to learn the language," says Dr. Shtyrov told The Telegraph. However, to say the word, need a new neural network, which is part of the brain that regulates speech.

However, this study does not aim to help tourists learn the language. According to Drs. Shtyrov, this research is to help restore the ability of stroke patients to speak.

To that end, the University of Cambridge took Cognition & Brain Sciences Unit of the Medical Research Council to develop an aphasia therapy that is named CIAT (Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy).

Aphasia is the loss of ability to speak due to illness, disability, or injury to the brain.

The next test will involve patients with stroke. As explained Dr. Shtyrov, rehabilitation can be faster by targeting parts of the brain for memory. "The key is repetition. The brain works better when the conditions relaxed and not trying to remember," he explained.

He gave an example in the field of sports. One can memorized the name of the players, teams, even good rules. "That's because every piece of information is always repeated and the people feel no need to memorize.

The brain can not memorize everything. Brain choose is important and the unimportant, "said Dr. Shtyrov.

Ancient Forest Found in North Pole

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Ancient Forest Found in North Pole

Primeval forest, complete with wood, leaves, and seeds, found in Arctic Canada in the area. Predicted Forest-old was surrounded by a glacier millions of years, no trees, except a few stunted trees bonsai-sized.

Photo Credit: Joel Barker

The team found that forests after receiving reports from the rangers from Quittinirpaaq in Ellesmere Island National Park, one whose position is the most northerly mainland. Rangers had found the wood chips are considered derived from large trees and some logs of wood along a few feet.

"The wood was scattered. It's hard to not step on it," said Joel Barker, environmental scientist from Ohio State University who is also leader of the study. If dug deeper, he says, will be more wood, leaves and seeds was found. The forest can be preserved because it was buried by a landslide and isolated from air and water.

By studying the wood, leaves and seeds, the research team managed to find some tree species, among which are pine, fir, and birch. According to Barker, the number of species that are not many that show that the forest was on the verge of extinction. "The forest is approximately derived from ten million to two million years ago," said Barker.

The researchers also measured the circumference of timber and found that the trees in the forest at least 75 years old when buried. Small tree rings show that tree growth is very slow.

The present invention can be used to determine the condition of the world at the Earth's climate changed drastically. "This discovery is extraordinary. Wood millions of years old with a still very good condition would open many possibilities," said Robert Blanchette, University of Minnesota pathologist.

The team hopes to find the speed of climate change and its effects on plants. Scientists also want to know how the tree reacts to cooling of about 5 million years ago, when the greenhouse effect turns into an ice house effect. Global warming is happening lately is the opposite of what happened.

Striped Tiger Dead Leaves, When the Moon Dead Leaves?

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Striped Tiger Dead Leaves, When the Moon Dead Leaves?

Beautiful ring encircling the planet Saturn are thought to be relics of the moons are "murdered". Then came a variety of headlines that used the term "cosmic murder" which refers to the demise of the moon that causes the appearance of colorful rings on the outside of the Planet Saturn.

Saturn moon murder victims is unknown what it's called. Months are marked disappeared at 4.5 billion years ago. The cause of death of these months are the plates of hydrogen gas (H) that surrounds Saturn at a time and at the same time there occurred the formation of the months of Saturn. However, now there is no trace of hydrogen gas.

According to the Cornell University astronomer Joe Burns, the mystery of Saturn's rings "is a puzzle for scientists for centuries."
Looking at the rings of Saturn, there are problems to be solved. In addition to the above theory, there is the theory that the moon-moon (Saturn) collide with each other. Another theory reveals the existence of the asteroid that hit several months that produce debris that form a ring.

The problem is, the months of Saturn are composed of gas and rock. Meanwhile, seven rings of Saturn is about 95 percent consists of ice and most likely composed of ice them first.

Recent studies sixth planet Earth, Planet Saturn, indicating that the month of death left circle Saturn's rings.

Attracted to the planet

The authors report the study of Saturn's rings, Robin Canup of the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado, USA, say, Saturn play a role in the killing of those months. "Saturn's accomplice (killer) and the rings are the result," said Canup.

Canup opened his theory with the events that occurred billions of years ago during the process of formation of the months. A large plate of hydrogen when it is circulated around Saturn. The plate helped the formation of the moon
Big moon in the system is likely to spin regularly attracted to the inside (toward Saturn) due to the mass of hydrogen gas interested. Month with the death process into a spiral motion lasted about 10,000 years. How did the rings of Saturn are born is to understand what happened at that time.
According to computer modeling by Canup, Saturn's ice cut from a month of very large size which is quite far from the planet Saturn could not be trapped in the ring.

Saturn's rings in the first size 10 - 100 times the current size of the ring. However, according to Canup, most of the ice is then joined in the months attached to a very small size of Saturn. According to Canup, Saturn has about 62 months and 53 pieces of them have names.

Regularly found in the months just by the Cassini spacecraft of the National Aeronautics and Space United States (NASA), launched in October 1997.

However, the findings can not explain the rings that surround the other planets in the solar system, like the planet Jupiter, Neptune and Uranus.

"Maybe the rings of other planets were formed in a different way from Saturn," said Canup.

Saturn is the planet with the size of the second largest planet in the solar system after Jupiter. According to Burns, who put forward the theory Canup much better in explaining the heavy ice components present in Saturn's rings.

Meanwhile, Larry Esposito, the inventor of one of Saturn's rings, revealed, "It's scientific work is smart, original idea."

"I'm inclined to say that what happened was like a cosmic recycling," said Esposito. Initially was months later into the ring and then into months.

"Such mechanism is not a process of death, but is a cosmic effort to reuse materials, use them over and over again," he said.

Types Frequently Meteor hit Earth

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Types Frequently Meteor hit Earth

1. Orionid meteor shower
Orionid meteor shower appears every year, and peak around October 21. This meteor shower is very clearly visible and looks up to 20 meteors per hour of green and yellow. Orionid meteor is the name of light in the sky at a point where they originated.

These meteors can be seen all over the sky but the movement they will always be pointed toward the light. Orionid meteor light located near the constellation Orion. And the meteor shower is caused by the orbit of Halley's Comet around 75-76 years.

The picture above is a meteor orionid under the Milky Way and in the constellation of Venus.

2. Perseid meteor shower
Perseid meteor is the meteor that probably we can see most clearly and is usually seen in the northern hemisphere during the night on a warm summer. Light and much, Perseid associated with the comet Swift-Tuttle
is amazing.
These meteors appear to originate from a light in the constellation Perseus and occurs when the earth through a meteor stream called the Perseid cloud is actually the residue of the tail of comet Swift-Tuttle.

Most of the Perseid cloud of dust from thousands of years old, although there are a few of them are young dust that evaporates from the comet in 1862. Perseid meteor shower has been observed around 200 years ago and is usually seen from mid-July and a peak on August 12 each year.
3. Geminids meteor shower
Meteor is not like other meteor that was born from a comet, but they come from a asteroid, a planetoid near the earth's rocky named Phaeton 3200.
In general, the asteroid does not generate dust into the sky and even predicted earlier this asteroid is a comet. Phaeton elliptical orbit like a comet and brought it even closer to the sun beyond the orbit of Mercury.
The first Geminids appeared 150 years ago, and since then they bombard the earth regularly every year in mid-December. They are expected to be more on the meteor showers each year and recently has seen more than hundreds of meteors in the sky.

4. Quadrantids meteor shower
Many meteor flashes seen in the figure below, green light, despite blocked by aurora on the right. Red light visible to the left is a light aircraft DC-8 NASA astronomer who fly over Canada to examine the Quadrantids meteor shower.

With the help of a special camera that can produce a composite image that combines a brief exposure, the researchers hope to learn from this meteor shower which was originally derived.

Because of the strong appearance of this meteor, in January earlier, this meteor shower is tentative identified as a small planet called planet 2003 EH1.

Possible meteor was also observed by astronomers from china, japan and korea half since last Millennium. At the height of his appearance, this meteor shower will be seen less than 1 hour.

Material Discovered Life On Fractions Meteor in Sudan Scientists managed to find amino acids in meteorites or material life. Scientists did not ex

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Material Discovered Life On Fractions Meteor in Sudan

Scientists managed to find amino acids in meteorites or material life. Scientists did not expect to find this material. This meteorite fell in northern Sudan. "The meteorite was formed by the collision of two asteroids," said Daniel Glavin of NASA's Goddard
"The collision is heating up more than two thousand degrees Fahrenheit (1093 degrees Celsius). The heat was enough to destroy the complex organic molecules such as amino acids, but surprisingly, the amino acid is still there," he added.

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins essential for life. "Find it in meteorites of this type means that there are many ways for amino acids can be formed in outer space, this increases the chance search for life in the universe," said Glavin.

Amino acids are used in many structures, from hair to the enzyme. Life uses 20 different amino acids to build millions of different proteins. The findings of amino acids on this object supports the theory of the origin of life from outer space.

Samples taken to the lab Goddard and Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego. "Our analysis ensuring that findings are amino acids," says study leader Jeffrey Bada of Scripps. Sensitive equipment to detect 19 different amino acids in the sample.

Amino acids can be created in two ways as your hand. Life on Earth use the left amino acids, and amino acids were never mixed with the right amino acids. However, the amino acids found in meteorites has a number of varieties the same left and right.

The findings in the Sudan is named 'Almahata Sitta' or 'Station Six'. This finding is very valuable because it is Ureilites which included rare species. The study is published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science.

Unique Facts North Pole and South Pole of Earth

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Unique Facts North Pole and South Pole of EarthSome of you already know that penguins are only found in Antarctica. Do not expect to see birds that look cute on the north pole.
Although similar, both the mainland at the end of planet Earth, which is dominated ice, north pole and south pole to save a lot of difference. Penguin is just one example of the difference alone.

Arctic ice in the polar region north is basically a frozen ocean surrounded by land that is often called the circle of the Arctic (Arctic Circle). In contrast, the Antarctic in the south polar region is the continent with ice-covered mountains and lakes surrounded by sea.

Antarctic continent containing nearly 90 percent of ice around the world. If melted, the entire Antarctic ice is sufficient to meet drinking water needs of three-quarters around the world. So do not be surprised if Prince Mohammed Al Faisal of Saudi Arabia had planned to transport 100 million tons of ice from Antarctica to the country.

Antarctica is much colder than the Arctic so that even there there is a layer of ice that never melts throughout history. Temperatures average -49 degrees Celsius.

Coldest temperature ever recorded on July 21, 1983 amounted to -89.6 degrees Celsius at Vostok Station, near the south geomagnetic pole. While the Arctic has a temperature higher average around -34 degrees Celsius.Due to warmer temperatures, the formation of ozone hole over the north pole is not as bad as the south pole. Therefore, warmer temperatures cause the formation of stratospheric clouds that damage the ozone layer less.However, the stratosphere above the Arctic experienced cooling from year to year so that the ozone hole getting bigger. It may not be for the Antarctic ozone hole reached the European continent wide.
Sea ice-dominated thin ice in the Arctic is more easily cracked when summer comes. In fact, the latest report mentions, smooth ice has hit all parts of the Arctic as summer arrives.
In the Antarctic ice sheet cracks hit areas once off the edge just yet, ice floating island could sail from Antarctica to New Zealand.

Until now, the Arctic region is still a bone of contention between superpower nations. Russia had to rush to claim power in the north pole with a flag stuck in the bottom waters last year.

Russia already prepared gas drilling on Lomonosov Ridge, mountain ranges under the sea at a depth of 1920 meters to obtain 10 billion tons of gas.
But the U.S. also did not want to lose by sending a Coast Guard icebreaker to map the borders back in Alaska before the ice there continues to shrink because of global warming. The U.S. Geological Survey estimates that there are oil content below the Arctic up to a quarter of world oil content.
Although the South Pole is expected to also save oil, especially around the Ross Sea, probably mined today is very small. Antarctica has received protection in accordance Antarctic Treaty that prohibits anyone doing any form of oil exploration and Antarctic regions make peace, and research together.Throughout history, Antarctica was never controlled by anyone and no indigenous people there. Contrast to the Arctic circle there are some populated cities such as Barrow in Alaska, Tromso, Norway, and Muramansk and Salekhaard, Russia. In north polar Eskimo people live.
Also, only in Arctic polar bears can be found naturally. Perhaps this is also the most powerful reason why the Penguins are only found in south pole never used its wings to fly.
Living in their respective territory, penguins and polar bears eat fish together and top the food chain.

Pan, moon in the Solar System Most Strange that orbits the Saturn

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Pan, moon in the Solar System Most Strange that orbits the Saturn

Flying saucer-shaped object looks strange. Hence, scientists who study Saturn's moon Pan declared as the solar system's strangest moon.

NASA experts say that the moon Pan is relatively young because it has a ring of ice particles in the planet. It's become evident how the formation of the Earth and the planets around it.
When viewing the first time, a strange shape-related Pan suspected this object speeds around Saturn. However, recent studies have shown that the speed Pan predicted 14 hours in a single rotation, not fast enough to give the appearance of a strange flying saucer.

Most likely, the unusual appearance was related components and composition of ice particles in a porous material that affects the formation of the moon Pan.

NASA experts say that Pan protomoon consists of two sides that have been destroyed due to the destruction of billions of years ago. This process is almost similar to the formation of the Earth and moon, as quoted from Evoscience.