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I created this blog without engineering. It's only limited to my knowledge. This blog contains articles which include history, astronomy, geology, and others.

Leonardo da Vinci

Posted by Mahendra blog

Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo Da Vinci (15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519) was an Italian Renaissance genius, who was good at many things, but most famous as a painter.[1] He was also a scientist, a mathematician, an engineer, an inventor, an anatomist, a sculptor, an architect, a botanist, a musician and writer. Leonardo was curious about everything in nature. He wanted to know how everything worked. He was very good at studying, designing and making all sorts of interesting things.[2]

Many people think that Leonardo was one of the greatest painters of all time. Many people think that he was the most talented person ever to have lived.[1] The art historian Helen Gardner said that no-one has ever been quite like him because he was interested in so many things that he seems to have had the mind of a giant, and yet what he was like as a person is still a mystery.[3]

Leonardo was born at Vinci which is a small town near Florence in Italy. He was trained to be an artist by the sculptor and painter Verrocchio. He spent most of his life working for rich Italian noblemen. In his last years he lived in a beautiful home given to him by the King of France.

Leonardo could do all sorts of clever things, but he was most famous as a painter. Two of his pictures are among the best-known paintings in the world: the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper. He did many drawings. The best-known drawing is the Vitruvian Man. It is so well known that even Homer Simpson and Garfield have been drawn in a square and a circle to look like the drawing. Leonardo was always thinking of new inventions. Most of his inventions were never made. However, we know his ideas, because he kept notebooks and wrote and drew in them very often. Some of the ideas that he thought of were a helicopter, a tank, a calculator, a robot and solar power.

The Works of Leonardo Da Vinci

Scientists Reveal Secrets of Successful Earth Magnets

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Scientists Reveal Secrets of Successful Earth Magnets

Earth's core is gradually melting and freezing due to heat circulation of mantle rock. These findings help understand the formation of the Earth's core.

In addition to understanding the Earth's core formation, these findings can also be used to determine how the outer core acts like a magnetic field generating geodynamo.

"The origin of magnetic fields up to now remained a mystery to scientists," said researcher Jon Mound of Leeds.

"We can not get a core sample of the Earth, so we just rely on surface measurements and computer models to determine which occurred in the Earth's core," he continued.

The interior of the Earth's core of solid iron about the size of the Moon is surrounded by dynamic fluid outer core of iron-nickel-iron core that caused many freezes and melts.

Disappeared when the cold heat flow from the core into the mantle passed to the Earth's crust through a process of convection. Convection currents move warm coat to the surface and send back to the core mantle cold.

"Movement is what gives power 'geodynamo' to generate a magnetic field. Our new model provides a simple explanation of some confusing measurements of scientists for many years,"he concluded.

Sources of Greek Mythology Ancient Fossils

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Sources of Greek Mythology Ancient Fossils

The Greeks have long been studying the fossils of ancient and is expected to make it as a source of inspiration of their myths. A piece of thigh bone ancient creatures thought to have become a source of inspiration in the creation myths of ancient Greeks.

Pieces of bone called bone Nichoria was part of a body of ancient giant mammals that lived in southern Greece about one million years ago.

After the ancient Greeks found it, came the wild creatures in classical Greek mythology that his inspiration comes from the bone.

According to Adrienne Mayor, a researcher Classics and History of Science at Stanford University, the fossils of ancient species of giant, like bone Nichoria, most likely a source of inspiration for the creation of the legendary wild creatures from classical mythology.

Furthermore, Major roots dig some classical Greek myths and found evidence indicating prehistoric fossils found in the same place the development of the myth of the giant creature emerged.

Major estimated that the ancient Greeks discovered the fossil bones in young coal basin in the study of prehistoric megalopolis that is known as the Battle of the Giants Field.

"The number of giant fossil bones at the site led to the myth of killing the entire army of giant neighbor by Zeus lightning blow," added Major.

Nichoria own bones found in an ancient Acropolis in Nichoria between 1969 and 1975 by archaeologists Minnesota Messenia Expedition team members.

The fact that the bones were kept in the Acropolis is located 35 miles from lignite where bones found indicate that the ancient Greeks have enormous interest in fossils.

Found, Graveyard 'Gods Jester' of the Maya

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Found, Graveyard 'Gods Jester' of the Maya

Archaeologists found the oldest tomb of an ancient Mayan ruler bearing the 'Gods Jester' from the year 350 BC. Based on a unique symbol, this is the evidence framework of the world's oldest royal party.

Found in a tomb under the house ruler in the region Holmul, northeast Guatelmala, the skeleton is estimated to belong to a man in his fifties years with good health condition before his death.

In addition to the god symbol Jester, at the tomb also shows seven tiles, jars, dishes and incense burners.
"We've found the tomb of the Maya who are older, but never found the royal tombs that include symbols like this," said John Tomasic from the University of Kansas, USA.

Under the site's archaeologists, experts also found the tunnel with a width of about 16 inches, wide enough to enter the human body. The place was estimated as the hall to the place of burial.

The results of this study revealed at a meeting of the Society for American Archaeology in Sacramento, California, United States. Previously, cemetery Mayan ruler of the year 100 BC was found at San Bartolo in 2005.

Successfully Archaeologists Find Dinosaur "Devil" Triassic Period

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Successfully Archaeologists Find Dinosaur "Devil" Triassic Period

New dinosaur named "Evil Spirit Buck-Toothed Reptile" aka bad-toothed reptile spirits or demons in the scientific name Daemonosaurus chauliodus found in New Mexico. The devil is the oldest dinosaur link between dinosaurs and Jurassic species of theropod dinosaurs.

Dinosaurs that lived 205 million years ago was as high as a large dog with an unusual bone. So obviously Hans-Dieter Sues, vertebrate ancient experts at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington DC. "short snout and large front teeth," he said. He also added, "This type of bone structure is not thought at that time for the predatory dinosaurs."

The oldest known dinosaurs lived 230 million years ago, in the Triassic Period. After that, there is a big gap from fossil findings. Many experts estimate that early dinosaurs became extinct. "After that predators are more complicated to take over then the diversification at the turn of the Triassic to the Jurassic period," said Sues.

Daemonosaurus c is a bridgethat connects two groups of dinosaurs . Of the fossils were found, these dinosaurs had some evolutionary trait that links gap between the early dinosaur into a more modern dinosaurs. Based on the analysis of fossil finds, dinosaurs Triassic is characterized by several features of the Jurassic.

Triassic characteristics it has, for example, a small gap between the nostril and eye socket. Bone associated with air bag systems such as the lungs of birds are also still have primitive traits. Characteristic of more modern dinosaurs possessed Daemonosaurus c exist in the tooth.

"This is proof that dinosaurs had a wider distribution,"explained Sue.

Thanks to satellite 17 New Pyramid Discovered

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Thanks to satellite 17 New Pyramid Discovered

Archaeologists from the University of Albaman, in Birmingham, Dr Sarah Parack and his team managed to analyze images taken from satellites orbiting 700 km above the earth, identified using infrared imaging to highlight the different materials under the surface, which allegedly is 17 pyramid is missing.

Not only that satellite that scans the 1000 tomb and more than 3,000 ancient settlements, which previously had been done before beginning excavation.

Launched by the BBC, satellite with infrared imaging is able to distinguish between ancient Egyptian mud bricks used to build structures and soil and earth. Mud bricks are more dense than the surrounding soil.

Sensing satellites to track the historical objects can be done because the citizens of the ancient Egyptians build houses made ​​of mud brick. Building structure was so dense pyramidal form of tapering similar homes easily detected.

"This is a site close to the surface. There are thousands more are covered by the silt of the Nile," said Sarah.

How to Determine Age Astronomers A Star?

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How to Determine Age Astronomers A Star?

For most people, when we see the stars in the sky, of course, we get that all the stars is near identical to each other. Star is a bright glowing ball of gas. The question is, how do we know how old the star?

Recently, astronomers have obtained a method to accurately determine the age of the star from observing how the star rotates. Played like a top on the table, then how fast or slow rotation of the star can be a determinant of time what is the age of a star.

These comments were made by astronomers named Soren Meibom of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics at the American Astronomical Society meeting 218.

Why do astronomers need to understand the age of a star?

Assessment of age stars have a very important role in various studies in astronomy, in particular of course to search for planets outside the solar system, studying how the formation,
development, and why every planetary systems that have been found so unique from one another.

By knowing the age of a star, then we can determine the age of planets, and whether there may be a life that had grown out there.

The older age of the planet, the greater the possibility of life forms, because as has been known planetary systems are at a star usually formed simultaneously with the birth star itself.

Knowing the age of stars tend to be easy to determine if stars will be measured it was in a star cluster system.

Basic knowledge of astronomy is to obtain the relationship of color and brightness of stars in the cluster in order to determine the age group, but his condition would become very difficult when the star to be determined age are not in a single cluster system.

As the stars that have been found to have planetary systems, most are not in the group, so determining the age of a challenge in the study of astronomy.

Research conducted by Meibon et al use the observations of the Kepler spacecraft, by measuring the ratio of rotation on a 1 billion year old cluster called NGC 6811.

NGC 6811

This value nearly double that of previous studies, and age it still be said about the investigation on the young group.

This study provides new insights on the relationship with the star's rotation ratio of age. If the validity of the star's rotation and age relations can be obtained, then the measurement of star's rotation period of each star can be used to determine their age - a technique known as gyrochronology, but this is not necessarily to be used.

As the system time on Earth that require a standard, then the system timing (age) should be able to be calibrated to a standard.

As we on Earth states that one year consists of 365 days, etc, then for the time to get fit, must be able to obtain a stability.

To that end, the first step that the researchers did was to start from measurements of a cluster system that has been known to age.

By measuring the rotation of the cluster member stars, can be studied stars spin ratio to determine the age-old. Measurement of rotation of the star members of clusters at different ages can link between rotation and age.

To be able to measure the rotation of stars, astronomers have to get the star brightness changes caused by star spots on the surface of the star, as sun spots on the surface of the Sun.

If there are spots formed on the surface and is in the direction to the observer, the star will experience a slight dimming, until the spots disappear, and come back a little more luminous star.

By determining how long it rotating spots on the surface of the star, it can be determined how fast rotating star observed.

Of course, brightness changes due to star spots are very, very small, less than one percent and become smaller in the older stars.

Thus the star's rotation measurements in stars that are older than half a billion years can not be done from the Earth's surface due to the interference of Earth's atmosphere.

But the problems it currently has to be overcome to use Kepler spacecraft observations, because the spacecraft had been designed to measure star brightness with great precision in order to determine the existence of planetary systems at the stars.

Of course, determining the age-rotation relationship in the case of NGC 6811 is not an easy job for Meibom et al because they have spent four years determine the cluster member stars or other stars who happen to be in the same direction of view.

This is done use a device called Hectochelle mounted on the MMT telescope on Mt. Hopkins southern Arizona. Hectochelle tool can observe 240 stars at once, and thus about 7000 stars have been observed during the four years of observations.

After learning about the stars who are members of the group, then the next data from the Kepler used to determine how fast the stars rotate.

They found a rotation period between 1 to 11 days (a more hot and massive spin faster), compared with the Sun's rotation ratio is only 30 days.

The most important of their findings is the relationship with the star mass ratio of rotation with small data distribution. These findings confirm that gyrochronology is a new method that can be used to study the age of a star.

Meibom team is currently planning to study the system of the older group in order to calibrate the time determining their star. It certainly is a step that is more difficult because the older star rotates slower and have fewer spots, which means that changes its light will be very small.

Work Meibom et al that has been a leap in the understanding of how the stars in the sky (including the Sun) to work, as well as on the understanding of planetary systems in the distant stars.

Present Possible White Hole in the Universe

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Present Possible White Hole in the Universe

You ever heard of black holes?
He is a dark gap in space which suck all the things around him and threw him to the nothingness of space. Now some scientists say that once there is evidence of the opposite of black holes.

The opposite of black holes, white holes or white holes do not suck things around but spewing out material coming from the middle of nowhere into our universe.

Our own universe is a strange place, and the black hole is one of the most bizarre thing that is present in it. But mathematically, a black hole should be reversed, that is, there is something that spew material, do not suck.

Quoted from Dvice, white holes operate with a different mode with a black hole. They suddenly appear for a short period of time. They then threw a number of materials into their own universe and then collapse, forming black hole and then never looked back.

Behavior white hole like this is very difficult to observe. But researchers believe they have found one of them.

In 2005, a shot of gamma rays had recorded but did not come together with the presence of a supernova that is generally triggered the burst of gamma rays. There is a possibility, he was present due to the collapse of a white hole.

What is interesting about the white hole is the formation of their material similar to the so-called Big Bang, or so-called phenomenon of the formation of an entire universe. This makes the white hole also called 'Small Bangs'.

White holes do not have spatial coordinates and exact time and could not be detected at all. They can suddenly appear at any time, anywhere and carry on their work before returning to disappear.

So far, the existence of white holes is still a conjecture. However, the black hole also is alleged to exist only really known in recent decades. And as was said by the physicist Murray Gell-Mann, whatever is not forbidden is compulsory.

That is, at least from a quantum mechanical point of view, there must be a white hole in one corner of the universe.


Posted by Mahendra blog


Meaning: Virgin

Symbols: Women

Period: August 23-September 22

NATURE Dominant

Critical, honest, likes to come clean and lightweight hand. Discipline and always do things carefully, aka perfectionist. Not happy to talk much, he preferred to work behind the stage, do not like to stand out. Believe in the future and do not hesitate to always move forward. Practical, sensitive, thinking with logic and smart. The man known Virgo fussy, like too worried about something, have a major obsession and love to criticize others. Although good at keeping their feelings and a bit shy, but he is jaunty and dare scold others when things do not pleased in his heart. It also suggests clever new opinions to be reckoned with. Establishment is firm like a rock and not easily forgive mistakes and vindictive people.


Like dreaming grandiose and hoping to get a perfect lover. Although he frequently criticized the appearance of her lover who is less satisfactory, but basically he is a lover of good and understanding.

A suitable mate for the Virgo: Capricorn, Taurus, Scorpio, and Cancer.

Mate that is not suitable for Virgo: Gemini and Sagittarius.


Its jaunty and clever adjust to make it preferred in the association. Moreover, he is also a sweet kindness and love to help people unconditionally.


Never give up, would rather do the work behind the scenes. To achieve the goals and ideals, he did not know the word tired and willing to make sacrifices.

Suitable job for Virgo:

Pharmacists, Publishers, Lawyers.


Virgo people are usually harmonious marriage and happy, because it belongs to the faithful and always tried to act properly. He also could be a good mate, like cooperation and understanding of her partner.


Good, its industrious and willing to work hard to make it always managed to overcome financial difficulties. Plus he was also generous and often do good, then her Fortune more shine.


Like to give advice, rather fussy, meticulous and likes to live a regular basis. Including people who cling to tradition, a bit stingy in terms of finance. Often feel anxious about losing what was gained.


Feeling fine, clever set of household and polite to anyone. Like with the neatness and cleanliness, with the situation, he would feel comfortable living in his house.


His passion warm and overflowing. Its very romantic and sensitive, making it like the sweet talk that immerses cooed before starting a relationship.


Resolute, did not know the word surrender, good at taking the right decisions, resourceful and a good mind to achieve success as desired. He was also among those who refused to budge, and selfless, helpful and humble.


Vindictive little selfish, like criticizing people with harsh words. When you are angry can utter the words rough and painful. Even when feeling hurt, it's hard for him to forgive the faults of these and will continue to keep it to myself. When you have become rich and successful, it tends to arrogant and reluctant to make friends with people who are beneath him. In addition, he also bossy and likes to find fault with others.


Wednesdays and Saturdays.