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The lost continent of Atlantis

Posted by Mahendra blog Saturday, September 25, 2010

Atlantis, Atalantis, [1] or the Atlantic [1] (Greek: 峒 埾 勎 晃 蔽 较 勧 蕉 蟼 谓 峥 喯 兾 肯 "island of Atlas") is a legendary island first mentioned by Plato in Timaeus and Critias book. [2]

In her notes, Plato wrote that Atlantis lies "beyond the pillars of Hercules", and has a navy that conquered Western Europe and Africa 9,000 years before the time of Solon, or approximately 9500 years BC. After failing to attack Greece, Atlantis sank into the ocean "in just one day one night."
Atlantis is generally regarded as a myth created by Plato to illustrate the political theory. Although the function of Atlantis story clearly visible to most experts, they debated whether and how much Plato notes inspired by older traditions. Some experts say that Plato described the events that have been passed, such as the Thera eruption or the Trojan war, while others claimed that he was inspired by contemporary events such as the destruction of Helike year 373 BC or the failed invasion of Athens to Sicily in 415-413 BC.

People often talk about the existence of Atlantis during the Classical Era, but generally do not believe it and sometimes making jokes. The story of Atlantis is less known in the Middle Ages, however, in the modern era, the story of Atlantis was rediscovered. Plato's description inspired the works of Renaissance writers, such as "New Atlantis" by Francis Bacon. Atlantis also affect modern literature, from science fiction to comic books and movies. His name has become a byword for all that advanced prehistoric civilization (and lost).

Plato Notes

Two of Plato's dialogues, Timaeus and Critias, written in 360 BC, contains the first references to Atlantis. Plato's Critias was never completed due to unknown reasons, however, experts named Benjamin Jowett, and several other experts, argues that Plato originally planned to make a third record, entitled Hermocrates. John V. Luce assumes that Plato - after describing the origin of the world and mankind in Timaeus, and also the perfect community of ancient Athens and its success in defending themselves from attack Atlantis in Critias - would discuss strategies Helenik civilization during their conflict with the barbarians as a subject of discussion in Hermocrates.

The four characters that appear in both records are the politicians Critias and Hermocrates and also philosophers Socrates and Timaeus, although only Critias speaks of Atlantis. Although all the characters are historical figures (only first three characters are taken), [3] the note may be a work of fiction of Plato. In his written works, Plato uses Socratic dialogue to discuss the opposite position in relation to forecasts.

Timaeus begins with the opening, followed by record-making and the structure of the universe and ancient civilizations. In the opening section, Socrates pondering about the perfect community, which is described in Plato's Republic, and wondered if he and his guests can remember a story that exemplifies the civilization like that.

In the book Timaeus, Plato recounts:
"In front of Mainstay Haigelisi Strait, there is a very large island, from there you can go to other islands, in front of the islands is entirely inland sea surrounded by the ocean, it is the kingdom of Atlantis. When the new Atlantis will launch a major war with Athens, but unexpectedly, Atlantis suddenly experienced an earthquake and flood, not until a day and night, completely submerged under the sea, beyond the great state of high civilization, disappeared overnight. [ 4] "
Poseidon works of Bronzino (1503-1572).

Critias mention that allegedly historical tale that will provide a perfect example, and followed by a description of Atlantis. In her notes, ancient Athens represents "perfect community" and Atlantis was his enemy, representing the very antithesis of the perfect traits is described in the Republic. Critias claims that his notes about ancient Athens and Atlantis wing from a visit to Egypt by the poet of Athens, Solon in the 6th century BC. In Egypt, Solon met priest of Sais, who translated the history of ancient Athens and Atlantis, recorded on heroglif papiri in Egypt, the Greek language. According to Plutarch, Solon met with "Psenophis Heliopolis, and Sonchis Saite, the most studied of all the priests" (Life of Solon). Because the distance of 500 years between Plutarch and events which are as a reason or excuse, and because the information is not currently in Timaeus and Critias, this identification is questionable.

According to Critias, god Helenik dividing the territory so that each god could have; Poseidon inherit the island of Atlantis. The island was larger than Libya and Asia Minor ancient united, [1] but will be drowned by the earthquake and the number of impassable mud, blocking the way across the ocean. The Egyptians described Atlantis as an island located approximately 700 kilometers, mostly consists of mountains in the north and along the coast, and oblong shaped round grasslands in the south "extending in one direction three thousand stadia (about 600 km), but in the middle about two thousand stadia (400 miles).

Atlantis native woman named Cleito (daughter of Evenor and Leucippe) live here. Poseidon fell in love with her, then marry the young girl and gave birth to five pairs of twin boys. Poseidon divided the island into 10 regions, each of which submitted in 10 children. The eldest, Atlas, became king of the island and surrounding ocean (called the Atlantic Ocean in honor of Atlas). The name "Atlantis" is also derived from its name, which berari "Island of Atlas".

Poseidon carved the mountain where his girlfriend lived into the palace and closed it with three circular trench width increases, varying from one to three stadia and separated by rings of land which is comparable magnitude. Atlantis nation then build a bridge to the north of the mountains, making the route to the rest of the island. They dug a large canal to the sea, and beside the bridge, made of stone cave into the ring so that ships can pass and get into the city around the mountain, they made a pier of stone wall trench. Every entrance to the city guarded by gates and towers, and walls surrounding each ring of the city. Wall was established from the red rocks, white and black are derived from the trench, and covered with brass, tin and orichalcum (bronze or brass).

According to Critias, 9,000 years before his birth, war between nations that are outside the Pillars of Hercules (generally thought to Strait of Gibraltar), with people who live in the Pillar. Nations conquered Atlantis Egypt and Libya as far as the European continent as far as Tirenia, and made its inhabitants slaves. Athenians led an alliance against the empire of Atlantis, and when the alliance was destroyed, Athens against the empire of Atlantis itself, liberating the occupied territory. However, later, came the earthquake and flooding in Atlantis, and just in one day one night, the island of Atlantis sank and disappeared.

Other ancient records

Timaeus and Critias addition, there are no ancient records of Atlantis, which means every other records of Atlantis based on Plato's record.

Many ancient philosophers consider Atlantis as fiction, including (according to Strabo) Aristotle. However, there are philosophers, geographers and historians who believe in the existence of Atlantis. [5] Crantor philosopher, pupil of the pupil of Plato, Xenocrates, tried to find evidence of the existence of Atlantis. His work, comments on the Timaeus, is lost, but another ancient historian, Proclus, reports that Crantor traveled to Egypt and found the column to the history of Atlantis written in letters heroglif. [6] Plato never mentions that column. According to the Greek philosopher, Solon saw the Atlantis story a different source that can be "taken for granted". [7]

Another part of the 5th century commentary on the Timaeus Proclus gave descriptions of geography Atlantis. According to them, there are seven islands in the sea at the time, the holy land to Persephone, and also the other three with a big huge, one of the holy land to Pluto, another to Ammon, and the last of them to Poseidon, with an area of thousands of stadia . Residents add-keep-their memories of their ancestors on the big island of Atlantis ever existed and has been in power for all islands in the Atlantic sea, sacred to Poseidon. Now, it has been written in Aethiopica Marcellus. "[8] Marcellus still not identified.

Historians and other ancient philosophers who believe in the existence of Atlantis is Strabo and Posidonius. [9]

Notes to Plato on Atlantis also has inspired several imitations parodik: only a few decades after the Timaeus and Critias, the historian Theopompus of Chios wrote of the region called Meropis. Description of this region is in Book 8 Philippica, which contains a dialogue between King Midas and Silenus, a friend of Dionysus. Silenus describes Meropid Nations, the human race is growing two times the normal body size, and inhabit two cities on the island Meropis (Cos?): Eusebes (Εὐσεβής, "city Pious") and Machimos (Μάχιμος, "city-Battle"). He also reported that the armed forces as much as ten million soldiers across the ocean to conquer Hyperborea, but leave this proposal when they realized that the nation is a nation Hyperborea in the world. Heinz-Günther Nesselrath stated that the story of Silenus is plagiarism story of Atlantis, Plato's idea to disassemble reason to mock. [10]

Zoticus, a Neoplatonic philosopher in the 3rd century, wrote a poem based on Plato's record of Atlantis. [11]

The 4th century historian, Ammianus Marcellinus, based on the work Timagenes (historian of the 1st century BC) is missing, writes that the Druids of Gaul, Gallic said that some of the residents migrated from the distant islands. Note Ammianus regarded by some as a claim that when Atlantis sank, its inhabitants fled to western Europe, but Ammianus says that "Drasidae (Druids) called back that portion of the population is indigenous but others also migrated from the islands and territory across the Rhine" ( Res Gestae 15.9), a sign that the immigrants came to Gaul from the north and east, not from the Atlantic Ocean. [12]

Hebrew treatise on astronomical calculations in the year 1378/79, which is a paraphrase of early Islamic works of unknown, offensive mythology of Atlantis in discussions regarding the determination of longitude zero point calculations. [13]

Modern Notes

Francis Bacon's 1627 novel, The New Atlantis (New Atlantis), describing the utopian community called Bensalem, located on the west coast of America. The characters in this novel gives the history of Atlantis that is similar to Plato's record. It is not clear whether Bacon called the North America or South America.

Novel In 1728 Isaac Newton, The Chronology of the Ancient Kingdoms Amended (Chronology of Ancient Kingdom Developing), studying the various relationships mythology with Atlantis. [14]

In the mid and late 19th century, some Mesoamerican scholars, starting with Charles Etienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, and including Edward Herbert Thompson and Augustus Le Plongeon, states that Atlantis was associated with the Mayan and Aztec civilizations.

In 1882, Ignatius L. Donnelly publish Atlantis: The Antediluvian World. His work attracted many people of Atlantis. Donnelly took Plato's record of Atlantis seriously and stated that all ancient civilizations known to have come from the high Neolithic culture.

During the late 19th century, the idea about the legends of Atlantis are combined with stories of "lost continent", such as Mu and Lemuria. Helena Blavatsky, "Grandmother Movements New Era", wrote in The Secret Doctrine (Secret Doctrine), that the Atlantis is a cultural hero (in contrast to Plato who describes them as a military problem), and "Root Race" to-4, which passed by "Aryan Race". Rudolf Steiner wrote of cultural evolution of Mu or Atlantis. Edgar Cayce, Atlantis was first mentioned in 1923, [15] and later explained that the location of Atlantis was in the Caribbean, and declare that the Atlantis is a high evolved ancient civilization, has now sunk, which has ships and aircraft using the energy in the form of a mysterious crystal energy . He also predicts that part of Atlantis would rise to the surface in 1968 or 1969. Bimini Road, found by Dr.J Manson Valentine, is a sinking rock formation that looks like a road on the north side of North Bimini Islands. This road was found in 1968 and claimed as evidence of a lost civilization and is still studied.

It has been claimed that before the era of Eratosthenes in 250 BC, Greek writers state that the location of the Pillars of Hercules on the Strait of Sicily, but there is no sufficient evidence to prove it. According to Herodotus (circa 430 BC), finish expedition had sailed around Africa on the orders of Pharaoh Necho, sailed into the southern Red Sea and Indian Ocean and the north in the Atlantic, re-entering the Mediterranean through the Pillars of Hercules. Description in the northwest African explains that he locate the Pillars of Hercules to the right where the pillars of Hercules are currently located. The belief that the pillars of Hercules which had been placed in the Strait of Sicily, according to Eratosthenes, has been quoted in several theories of Atlantis.

Nationalist Ideas

The concept of Atlantis draw attention Nazi theorists. In 1938, Heinrich Himmler organized a search in Tibet to find the rest of the nation's white Atlantis. According to Julius Evola (Revolt Against the Modern World, 1934), the Atlantis is superhuman (Übermensch) Hyperborea-Nordic from the North Pole (see Thule). Alfred Rosenberg (The Myth of the Twentieth Century, 1930) also speaks of the head race "Nordic-Atlantis" or "Aryan-Nordic".

Recent hypotheses

With the theory of continental drift was widely accepted during the 1960's, most of the theory of "Lost Continent" Atlantis began to dwindle in popularity. Some recent theorists propose that elements of Plato's story comes from early mythology.

Location Hypothesis

Since Donnelly, there are dozens - even hundreds - the proposed location of Atlantis. Several hypotheses are archaeological or scientific hypothesis, while others are based on physics or other. Many of the proposals that have similar characteristics with the story of Atlantis (water, major disasters, the relevant time period), but none proved successful as the real story of the history of Atlantis.

Most of the proposed locations are at or around the Mediterranean Sea. The island like Sardinia, Crete and Santorini, Sicily, Cyprus and Malta; cities like Troy, Tartessos, and Tantalus (in the province of Manisa), Turkey, and Israel-Sinai or Canaan. The eruption of Thera in the 17th century BC-16 or to cause a large tsunami that destroyed civilization allegedly Minoa experts around the island of Crete which further increased the belief that this disaster may be the catastrophe that destroyed Atlantis. [16] There is a region on the Black Sea which proposed as the location of Atlantis: the Bosporus and Ancomah (legendary place near Trabzon). Around the Sea of Azov was proposed as another location in 2003. [17] A. G. Galanopoulos stated that the time scale has been changed due to errors of translation, the possibility of translation errors Egypt to Greece; the same mistakes will reduce the size of the kingdom of Atlantis Plato became the island of Crete, who left the city with the size of the crater of Thera. 900 years before Solon was the 15th century BC. [18]

Some hypothesis states that Atlantis was on the island that has been submerged in Northern Europe, including Sweden (by Olof Rudbeck in Atland, 1672-1702), or in the North Sea. Some have suggested al-Andalus or Ireland as a location. [19] The Canary Islands are also stated as a possible location, west of the Strait of Gibraltar but closer to the Mediterranean Sea. Various islands in the Atlantic also expressed as a location as possible, especially the Azores Islands. Spartel Island who had drowned in the Strait of Gibraltar has also been suggested [20].

Antarctica, Indonesia, under the Bermuda Triangle, [21] and the Caribbean Sea has been proposed as the location of Atlantis. The story of the continent "Kumari Kandam" missing in India has inspired some to describe it in parallel with Atlantis. According to Ignatius L. Donnelly in his book, Atlantis: The Antediluvian World, there is a link between Atlantis and Aztlan (residence Aztec tribal ancestors.) He claims that the Aztec tribe pointed to the eastern Caribbean as the former location of Aztlan.

The location of the alleged location of Atlantis is:

* Al-Andalus
* Crete and Santorini
* Turkey
* Near Cyprus
* Middle East
* Malta
* Sardinia
* Troy
* Antarctica
* Australia
* Azores Islands
* Edge of the Bahamas and the Caribbean
* Bolivia

* Black Sea

* England
* Ireland
* Canary Islands and Cape Verde
* Denmark
* Finland
* Indonesia

* Isla de la Juventud near Cuba
* Mexico
* North Sea
* Estremadura, Portugal
* Sweden


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